The lithium-ion battery is an advanced battery technology that uses lithium-ion as its vital electrochemical component. During the discharge, the lithium atom at the anode ionizes and is separated from the electrons. Lithium-ion batteries and li-ion rechargeable batteries are the batteries that provide high-density performance.
Lithium ions move from the anode and pass electrolytes to the cathode when they recombine with their electrons and it gets neutralized electrically. The lithium-ion is small enough to move through the micro-permeable separator between the anode and cathode.
Just because of lithium's small size, lithium-ion batteries can have very high voltages and charges per unit mass and volume. Lithium-ion batteries use a variety of materials, such as electrodes. The most common combination is lithium cobalt oxide and graphite, which is most common in portable electronic devices such as laptops and cellphones.
Other cathode materials include lithium manganese oxide and lithium iron phosphate. Compared with other high-quality rechargeable battery technologies, lithium-ion batteries have several advantages. They currently have the highest energy density of all battery technologies.
Lithium-ion batteries have no memory effect, these are the detrimental processes in which repeated partial discharge/charge cycles can cause the battery to retain less capacity. This is an advantage over Ni-Cd and Ni-MH, which exhibits this effect.
Lithium-ion batteries also have a low self-discharge rate of around 1.5 to 2% per month. These batteries do not contain toxic cadmium, which makes it easier to dispose of than Ni-Cd batteries.